In one manuscript,. The nodes are the points where the plane of the planets deferent crosses the ecliptic, which are ascending when it crosses from south to north and descending when it crosses from north to south. Aries or to the beginning of whichever other triplicity. And thus the diurnal planets take pleasure when they are in the east, that is when they are rising at dawn. And the nocturnal planets take pleasure when they appear in the evening in the Western hemisphere. Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars also take pleasure when they are in a masculine part of the zodiac band, when it is from the midheaven to the ascendent, and from the fourth sign to the seventh; BYY, Introduction, 4:, t : Sensus huius est quod de residuo quod est inter duos significatores debet accipere talem partem qualis pars sunt hore longitudinis ab angulo predicto de.
And when a planet is masculine it takes pleasure in a masculine part and when a planet is feminine it takes pleasure in a feminine part. Similar explanatory notes appear in a discussion in Alcabitiuss third chapter on. Gaudent etiam saturnus iupiter et mars cum fuerint in parte circuli masculina; ut est a medio celi in ascendentem, et a signo 4 in 7 luna uero et uenus gaudent cum fuerint in parte feminina, que est ab 7 usque ad medium celum, et ab ascendente usque in angulum terre quod est signnum 4 mercurius in totam partem. Cum fuerit cum planeta masculina gaudet in parte masculina et cum planeta feminina gaudem in parte feminina.
Transfert etiam planeta naturam alio modo, hoc est ut iungatur planeta levis planete ponderosiori se, et ipse ponderosior iterum alteri se ponderosiori; tunc medius transfert naturam levis ad ponderosiorem. There are, for example, labels for Alcabitiuss explanations of the houses de. In terms of establishing the identities of individual.
Iupiter tunc transfert naturam Lune ad Saturnum. Pono quod in hora natalis alicuius ascendens fuit libra sed nescio quis gradus eius et pono quod natalis fuit nocturnalis et coniunctio precedens eam fuit in 6 gradum aquarii, video quod saturnus est fortior in illo gradu Museo Correr MS Cicogna , f. Id est plures habuerit dignitates in domo illius rei aut dominum queris uel si dominum anni queris considera quis illorum habuerit plures dignitates in ascendente tempore in introitus solis in arietem et talis erit dominus ascendentis uel dominus anni, et hic est melior modus secundum cum tamen ambo obseruari possunt faciendum est uel melius ac uerius res se abeu n t.
Ioannes de fundis bonnonie cum iudicium fecit anni domini , qui commentat tunc temporis hora introitus solis in arietem ascendebat 4 gradus cancri in quo iupiter tunc reperibatur et quam ipse exaltatur in cancro ideo in ipso habent 4or fortitudines propterea quia luna in ipso cancro habent 5 fortitudines quam cancri est domus lune ideo secundum hunc modum debetur esse luna dominus anni cum plures habeat fortitudines propterea M. See especially f. There are at least two hands in this manuscript. The first makes the annotations which appear to have been authored by a university professor.
The others, which are more labels, resemble the hand of Laurentius Silvestris. For a recent appraisal of the evidence, see J. Pseudo-Albert cites several astrological authors in compiling his list of licit and illicit astrological texts: Ptolemy, Messahala, Geber, Albategnius, Albumasar, Alcabitius, Johannes Hispalensis, Haly, Zael, Alkindi, and Jafar and others. Ptolemys Tetrabiblos was translated in by Plato of Tivoli, with the most popular commentary on the text, that of Haly Al ibn Riwn , translated in the thirteenth century. Albumasars two introductory texts on astrology, The Great Introduction and the Abbreviation to the Introduction, were translated roughly contemporaneously with Alcabitius Introduction in the s, the former by the same translator Johannes Hispalensis and the latter by Adelard of Bath.
It is important to recall that while Alcabitius draws heavily from Albumasars work, he does not once cite him by name. Alcabitius defines these in 1:. This reference is to the Great Introduction. See also 4:, b : Hoc melius dictum est in principio 6 tractatus libri Albumasar de coniunctionibus. Cum ergo habueris aliquot gradus alicuius signi in quibus sit aliquis planeta vel gradus domus et volueris scire in natura cuius signi est, fac ut dicit liber, et non oportet ut addas super illos gradus quot multiplicasti, quoniam superfluum est, nec Albumasar illos addidit.
See BYY, Introduction, 4:, i : Hoc ita invenit Abumasar in prima figura ultime differencie libri sui de alchiren in regione sue. See also 4:, k : Hic sciendum est quod Maumet non fuit dictus rex, immo propheta, et ideo regnum non incepit a tempore eius, set incepit longo tempore post, scilicet transactis annis Persidis, et inceperunt Arabes regnare et redierat ascendens ad Virginem. Et puto errorem in his locis fore in littera. Hoc non est ita, immo tunc mutatum est regnum Arabum ad nigredinem Erachlie ut habetur in secunda figura trium figurarum ultime differentie libri alchiren.
This gloss also appears in BAV Pal. Astrological texts very obviously retained their Arabic. Readers of the Introduction also continued to offer or reproduce transliteration. VIII 33, f. The manuscripts have several variants. The hyleg variants are: hilesg, hilel, hiles, hyles, yles, hilegh, yle, hiselesg, elhyleg, hyleg, hylech, hylez; the Alcochoden variants are: alquodchodeuh, alkudchudech, alquodhodeu, aliq uod hodeu, aliq uod hodeu, alchocodeu, alchoden, alcocodeu, aliq uo dchodeu, alcogodeu, alcodcodeu, acozcodeu, alcochodeu, alcochoden.
Only four Latin manuscripts. It is no surprise, as foreknowledge of the. The English translation employed by BYY is prorogator. In the case of alcohoden, the annotator has written, Alkocoden interpretatur uir et est dator annorum nati, Pal. It does appear in Mashaallahs Book on Eclipses. Shlomo Sela, Leiden: Brill, , It is also reported in al-abars Book on Nativities, as recorded in S. This reveals, at the very least, a respect. Albumasar was. Brendan Dooley, Leiden: Brill, Commentaries indicate deliberate and reflective acts of readership, the result of.
Girolamo Cardano wrote a commentary on the Tetrabiblos in , just before the last commentary on the Introduction was written by Valentin Naibod in This commentary does not appear in BAV Pal. This manuscript contains in fact John of Saxonys commentary, but is missing the first several paragraphs. It has the same incipit as John of Stendhals commentary: Ptolomeus in prima propositione Centiloquii dicit Biblioteca Marciana, Lat. VIII The other possibilities spring from a misattribution of authorship in the manuscript from a later period, to the fifteenth-century author Nicolas de Comitibus, who lived too late to have authored the commentary.
Thorndike considers another set of Nicolass as authors, but no name of Nicolas appears in the manuscript colophon or flyleaf pages. A fragment is preserved in Lyon, Bibliotheque municipale de Lyon, ms. Navarro-Brotons Valencia, : 28 Martins Press, , See also Graziella Federici Vescovini, I programmi degli insegnamenti del Collegio di medicina, filosofia e astrologia dello statuto delluniversit di Bologna del , in Roma, magistra mundi: Itineraria culturae medievalis, Mlanges offerts au Pre L. Boyle, 2 vols. Louvain: La Neuve, , 1: Paul Uiblein Vienna: Bhlau Verlag, , The lecturer was a former student from the University of Prague, Benedikt de Makra.
Monica Azzolini has provided an outline of a corpus astrologicum based off. Lemay cites John of Saxonys commentary as evidence that Alcabitius was read at Paris. Stelcel, Codex diplomaticus universitatis studii generalis Cracoviensis: pars teria ab anno usque ad annum Krakw, , Magistri Martini autem dicti Rex Ptolomeum in Quadripartito, Alcabicium, Centiloquium verborum Ptolomei, Albumasar et alios libros spectantes ad astrologiam, iudicium quoque correctum et a senioribus in eadem facultate revisum et approbatum, universitati singulis annis praesentabit.
The range of commentaries on. Introduction, the latter is mostly devoted to the explication of astrological doctrine. According to Thorndike, the Sphaera commentary is less a commentary upon Sacroboscos text than a manual of astrological necromancy. See Thorndike, Cecco dAscoli, The text of this manuscript is fairly illegible, which is reflected in some of the nonsensical Latin of Boffitos edition.
My translations follow Boffitos text quite literally and thus reflect this fact. Boffito, Alcabizzo, The same example is given in Amad ibn Ysufs commentary on verbum 5 of the Centiloquium, and also by John of Saxony in his commentary in the Introduction. Tertia ibi Significatio planetarum, etc. Another example of addressing the students directly is on p. Gemini is called thus because the Sun stays in that sign for two days more than in another sign. Boffito, Alcabizzo, Taurus dicitur eo quod cum sol est in tauro incipit elevare cornua radiorum suorum et redit terram arabilem; Gemini dicitur eo quod sol stat in illo signo duobus diebus plus quam in alio signo.
Unde pono quod aliquis habeat febrem ex sanguine et iam apparuerint signa digestionis, cum luna erit in quarta sua humida que significat sanguinem et illa quarta fuerit impedita, tunc elevabitur sanguis in venis et artariis. Unde si gemini fuerint in ascendente, virgo erit in angulo terre qui significat thesaurum, piscis in angulo celi quod significat honorem, sagittarius in angulo occidentis qui significat profectum ex causis mulierum; unde si domini eorum sint fortes et sic fuerit nativitatis rationalis, erit natus et dives, quia quando dominus ascendentis et dominus quarte fuerit idem planeta natus ad diuitias disponetur, ut dicit Almasor in suis Afforismis Boffito, Alcabizzo, quod caput et cauda sunt intersecationes circulorum equatoris et deferentis et non sunt stelle posite in celo ad modum draconiset iste intersecationes uocantur nodi et mouentur omni die naturali 3 minutis et 2 secundis versus occidentem et capud est compositum ex natura Iouis et Veneris et cauda ex natura Saturni et Martis.
Iuxta quod debetis intelligere quad dyacodius est quidam lapis cuius color est: si ponitur in aqua cum capud vel cauda fuerint in sagittario, naturaliter spiritus qui sunt extra ordinem gratie veniunt ad responsa. Et hic lapis habet mirabilem proprietatem, nam si tangat corpus humanum mortuum amictit uires suas, ut dicit Euayrex arabum in libro de lapidibus.
It is not clear from Boffitos transcription what is meant by dyacodius, although from the context it refers to the type of stone. The closest alternative in spelling is diacodium or diacodion, a syrup made from poppies. In addition, it is unlikely Cecco meant color in the phrase quidam lapis cuius color est, which Boffito also must have incorrectly transcribed.
Johns commentary is a very thorough explanation of the astrological principles. See Burnett, Al-Qabs Introduction, Ptolemy recognized stars in the Almagest. The discrepancy of the number of the stars in Johns commentary may have originated with Albumasars Great Introduction. In his discussion of the first place, which signifies the bodies of. Et si fuerint in septima significant malam nutritionem et anxiam atque laboriosam. Si dominus ascendenti fuerit combustus, natus non viuet spacium scilicet dierum.
Et dixi que puer non viueret per octo dies et mortuus fuit in sexta die. See also Ptolemy, Centiloquium, verba 94, f. Reference to printed edition. John completes his commentary on the first chapter with an interpretation of a. Verbi gratia. Pono quod ascendens sit leo et sol habeat plures fortitudines in gradu ascendente, et pono quod sol sit in 2 domo, dico que intentio sua est petere de substantia sua vel de lucro, vel de aliquo consimili John of Saxony, Commentary, f.
John continues to supply. The quote is recorded from BL Digby 97, fol. Quando autem significatores habent latitudinem difficilior est modus. Et propter hoc factum fuit instrumentum ad dirigendum planetas habentes latitudines. Et illud instrumentum vocatur directorium. Videbatur enim compositori seu inventori illius instrumenti quod significator habens latitudinem non posset dirigi per tabulas ascensionum vel non sine magna difficultate.
Ego autem dico quod instrumentum non est sufficiens nisi sit maxime quantitatis ita quod possit recipere minuta. Tale autem vix posset fieri. In directionibus enim ut plurimum accipitur pro quolibet gradu unus annus. Modo si instrumentum non sit divisum nisi per gradum vix invenitur in eo certitudo usque ad annum. Adhuc si instrumentum sit bene factum ita quod non sit error in dividendo hoc autem non sufficit.
It is possible that here John is referring to paper instruments. Since in a short time. Et ideo sapientes qui imagines faciebant stellarum introitum in celestes vultus inspiciebant et tunc operabantur quod debebat. See Ptolemy, Centiloquium, verbum 9, f. Tamen ego dico illud quod ego vidi de una experientia quam inueni in loco qui dictus est oculus solis: quia in modico tempore miracula magna vidi, haec sunt verba Haly, de experientia autem tacet. In centiloquio in commento illius propositionis: vultus huius seculi, dicit unam experientiam de sigillo scorpionis facto in lapide secundum quod potest ibi videri.
Et quis eorum fuerit sit in angulis et haec est natiuitas daemonum. Inter autem alios introductorios liber Alkabicii est magis approbatur apud modernos. Ideo Dimissis aliis de ipso ad presens intendimus. Along with the fact that Cecco was. In considering his treatment in general of Arabic authorities, it is obvious that. Cavallo and Chartier, trans. As for the. Naibod rarely distinguishes between Arabic authors, usually referring solely to.
Modum constituendi figuras coeli ex sententia Campani et Gazuli propterea quod sit erroneus, hic omitto. Potuissem simili ex causa omittere modum autoris, nisi ob expositionem textus adijciendus fuisset. Solam enim opinionem Monteregii hic probamus, quae et Ptolemaei est, aut certe ad ipsius sententiam quam proxime accedit. In both cases, Arabic astrology was considered an authoritative Cardano wrote that astrologers must free themselves from all the ballast of the various Albumasars, Abenragels, Alchabitiuses, Abubatres, Zaheles, Messahalas, and Bethenes.
In Johns commentary in particular, the extent to which Arabic. BYY note that the word liber is often inserted when the title is brought from the colophon at the end of the text to the first line at the beginning of the text. BYY provide a list of manuscripts containing these Greek substitutions. For the manuscripts which contain these variants, see BYY, Introduction, Or, an. The study is biased towards the kinds of manuscripts which were acquired by these libraries, which may not be representative of the whole.
For example, a collection of manuscripts of the Introduction at the Bodleian Library would likely yield more information about a university-centered readership. While many of the manuscripts in this study reflect readership at universities, for a full study of textual companionship it is necessary to consult a broader range of manuscripts. In his study of the corpus astronomicum, Olaf Pedersen identified a consistent.
The Introduction appears with Sacroboscos Algorismus and De sphaera, a Theorica planetarum, the Alphonsine canons and tables, Thbit ibn Qurras De recta imaginatione spere and De motu octave spere and commentaries by Peter of Dacia and Johannes Anglicus. The earliest of these is BAV Barb. BAV Vat. BAV Reg. The inscription reads, Expleta spera 11 diebus april in hora mercurii. Bound to these are some of the Alchandreana, and then a set of texts from the fifteenth century a Zodiac man, a calendar, tables with a date of , and a Liber metherorum walthei borley.
As the Introduction and Sphaera were written in the same hand it is highly likely that they were bound together by the same scribe. See BAV Vat. This commentary is in fact John of Saxonys and is missing the first several paragraphs. The text begins, Ptolomeus in prima propositione dicit and continues sciam stellarum ex te et ex illis est: et Cf. One potential indication of the corpus de scientia astrorum is that it represented. In the set of manuscripts I have seen, there is a conspicuous absence of medical.
The first page of the next quire picks up where the text left off, but on paper and Cf. This appears to be a well-used university text, which also contains a calendar, a Sphaera, and hand-drawn copies of the woodcuts in Ratdolts printed edition. This suggests a student may have taken it.
Individual manuscripts also reveal a wealth of information when subjected to a. However, the textual companionship shows the set of texts. Booklists Bib. The ownership inscription is from October 8, , which would have been shortly after the return of the ship Victoria in September Ille die iunii Venetiis natus, ordinem Praedicatorum ingressus est in domo ss. Ioannis et Pauli, die 2 febr. The Introduction was. Descriptions of the codicological features of manuscripts, coupled with a study. Bodley The manuscript is Lucca, Biblioteca Statale, Another manuscript also contains the preface: Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley Referring to him first as the wise Alcabitius, Borotin later.
For Borotins comments, see p. The title page of a edition of Simon de Colines is inscribed with the name of Leonardus Saracenus, who according to a seventeenth century historical work became a theologian in Paris. One copy is Bodleian Library, Auct. However, these questions demand further investigation of a greater number of copies of the printed Introduction. I intend to focus primarily on the variations in the printed editions. Unfortunately, the online catalog marks it as lost. It is possible that the date was mistakenly recorded, and it is the edition, since the titles are the same.
Regarding each intervention as significant, the. However, although Alcabitius was known primarily by his last name, the title. Additis annotationibus et in margine et in textu atque glossa per magistrum Petrum Turrellum Astrophilum divionensis gymnasii rectorem: cum tractatulo de cognoscendis infirmitatibus apprime Medicis necssario e multis authoribus per eundem extracto, sine quo revera sepius quam nauta sine remo medicus hebet omnis: quo habito urinam videre non opus est.
Coniunctionibus nusquam antea impressum addidit et pleraque scitu dignissima cum castigatissimo Ioannis de Saxonia Commentario. See Scarabel, dition Critique, The retention of the transliterated. See Burnett, Al-Qabs Introduction, 58, n. The commentary section heading then reads: Glossa super textu De signis mobilibus. See Lyon edition, fol. Nam ter quattuor aut quater tria duodecim faciunt: qui numerus est duodecim signorum zodiaci que omnium viventium esse et vitam in hec inferiora influunt, ut scribit Philosophus in libro primo de generatione et corruptione.
In signis vero sterilibus scilicet aereis vel igneis significant sterilitatem. Et si alter sit sic et alter non significant mediocritatem. Et hec experientia cognovimus. Almanacs included a variety of. In Success and Suppression, Hasse includes a convenient table which lists authors and the numbers of editions printed under their names 8. There is also an Appendix with lists of all the editions of Latin translations of Arabic texts printed before Also, although.
There is also a valuable appendix which lists printed practica. Green does not discuss astrological textbooks. Aspecting in this sense is conditioned both by the interests, aspirations, and aptitudes of the aspecting individuals and by the accessible aspects of the viewed culture, that is to say, the aspects that happen to be disclosed to them by the accidents of history or by their further, determined effort. Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana Ash.
Venice, Biblioteca Marciana Lat. VIII 30 Lat. VIII 33 Lat. VIII 44 Lat. Abraham Ibn Ezra. Edited and translated by Shlomo Sela. Ab Mashar. On historical astrology: the book of religions and dynasties on the great conjunctions.
The Mansions of the Moon
Edited by Keiji Yamamoto and Charles Burnett. Adams, W. Edited by Enrico Maria Corsini. Adamson, Peter. Recherches de Philosophie et Thologie Mdivales 69 n. Adelard of Bath. Cambridge, Anderson, Peter, ed. Pratiques de traduction au Moyen Age: Actes du colloque de luniversit de Copenhague 25 et 26 octobre Arnzen, Rdiger. Vergessene Pflichtlektre: al-Qabs astrologische Lehrschrift im europischen Mittelalter.
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Revue du monde musulman et de la Mditerrane 62 : Kitb tafhm li-awil inaat al-tanjm. Edited and translated by Ramsay Wright. London: Bolt, Marvin. Al ibn s al-Asurlb. New York: Springer, Borrelli, Arianna. Aspects of the astrolabe: architectonica ratio in tenth- and eleventh-century Europe.
Sudhoffs Archiv Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag, Boudet, Jean-Patrice. Lire dans le ciel: la bibliothque de Simon de Phares, astrologue de XVe sicle. Bruxelles : Centre d'tude des manuscrits, Burkhardt, Jakob. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, vol. Translated by Middlemore. New York: Macmillan, Burnett, Charles.
In Encyclopedia of Islam, 3rd edition, edited by Kate Fleet et al. Leiden: Brill In Encycopedia of Islam, 3rd edition, edited by Kate Fleet et al. Raymond of Marseile. In Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Edited by Thomas Hockey, et al. Springer, Mantello and A. Washington, D. Aither 2 : Advertising the New Science of the Stars circa Paris: Le Lopard dOr, Reprinted in. Ashgate: Variorum, John of Seville and John of Spain, a mise au point. Bulletin de philosophie mdivale Brepols: Turnhout, Mediaevalia, Textos e Estudos Porto, In diter, Traduire, Interpreter: essaies de mthodologie philosophique, edited by S.
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Gainesville: University Press of Florida, Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination. Paul Uiblein, ed. Acta Facultatis Artium Universitatis Vindobonensis, Vienna: Bhlau Verlag, Van Oppenraay, A. Van de Vyer, Andre. Les plus anciennes traductions latines mdivales IX-XI s. Osiris 1 : Veltman, L. Een astrologisch tractaat voor een adellijke dame. Aleid van Zandenburg en de Berlijnse codex mgq In Een wereld van kennis. Bloemlezing uit de Middelnederlandse artesliteratuur, edited by E.
Veltman, Hilversum, Westman, Robert. Read Free For 30 Days. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. The zodiacal error is not one sign or two but up to six signs by now. Suffice to say that the same people who serve you the error are quite incapable of calculating it.
Once the concept of default mind is grasped, one will not be surprised at all at people who warn of an error while they continue to work with it. The daily astrological predictions in the newspapers — fun or fact. Jump to Page. Search inside document. First I would like to thank my advisor, Rienk Vermij, whose office door was always open for my endless questions, no matter how big or small, and who was supportive and understanding during the most challenging periods of my graduate career. Conversations with Steve Livesey shaped much of my thinking about transmission, and he was a regular supplier of catalogs and other resources that I had overlooked.
Kerry Magruders enthusiasm for my research and for the history of science more generally, as well as his thoughtful questions, brought new energy to the project on several different occasions. The dissertation would have been impossible without the extensive scaffolding constructed by Charles Burnetts decades of research on the subject, and I am extremely grateful for his careful reading and criticism of my work. Kathleen Crowther and Roberta Magnussen provided thoughtful feedback in conversations and on chapter drafts throughout the writing process.
I have been very fortunate to have worked with other extraordinary teachers and mentors. Katherine Pandora has been a challenging mentor and friend for the duration of my studies at the University of Oklahoma. Marilyn Ogilvie provided a much-welcomed perspective over the years on navigating the discipline and simultaneously managing a career and a household.
The American Academy in Rome provided a gorgeous backdrop and a stimulating environment to conduct research at the Vatican Library. Lastly, the History of Science Collections at the University of Oklahoma Libraries was central to my research both at home and abroad. I wish to thank the Head Librarian JoAnn Palmeri for her support and friendship over the years, as well as the rest of the Collections staff. There are several colleagues and friends whom I also wish to thank, especially Stella Stuart, whose regular supply of coffee, friendly discussion, and administrative support got me through many trying times.
Carolyn Scearce deserves special mention for her enormous support as a friend and colleague, but also as a babysitter for two of my children when they were infants. I now have two additional children, the most recent now almost 10 months old. My children travelled with me to Montreal and Rome. They attended conferences. They put up with the stress of a parent in graduate school. I am extremely grateful for their love and their support, which they provided in their own way.
My work also would have been impossible without the support of extended family. My mother-in-law Nejiba Gaida, may she rest in peace, stayed with us for two months in Rome before she passed away unexpectedly three months later. My father-in-law Essaied Gaida and sister-in- law Chiraz Gaida spent five months with us last summer so that I could write in peace during my pregnancy.
My father Michael Gleason swooped in at precisely the right moments to help me navigate various crises. My aunt, Suzanne Gonzalez, has made numerous trips to Norman and also came to Rome to help. The unnerving factor is that many of the criteria for the End Times, are already happening. Catherine de Medici, the wife of Henri II, had been troubled by this prediction, especially since the Italian astrologer, Luc Gauric, had already warned the King that both the beginning of his reign and the end would be marked by duels.
Shortly after his accession, Henri had fought a duel — rather a risky venture for a monarch, but then Henri was an Aries — and Catherine clearly wanted to know whether the next would indeed kill him. Henri died in agony ten days later. To add to the accuracy of this prophecy, both Montgomery and the King featured a lion on their coat of arms. The fulfilment of this quatrain brought Nostradamus international fame. However, he had his critics too, including doctors, philosophers, even other astrologers.
No, of course not.. His detracters even made up a neat little tongue twister about him in Latin:. Nostra damus cum falsa damus nam fallere nostrum est; Et cum falsa damus, nil nisi notra damus. Roughly translated this means: When we give our own we give false things. And when we give false things we give but our own. I guess it loses a lot in the translation. Catherine de Medici summoned Nostradamus to Court in the summer of , no doubt shortly after she had read the quatrain above. To be correct it was the King who issued the summons, presumably because he believed he was humouring his wife.
While further explanation of the quatrain was surely part of that first consultation, Catherine also asked Nostradamus to read the horoscopes of all her children. Then, as now, this presented a daunting task for an astrologer. And why?
Her eldest son, Francois, would die in his teens leaving his child bride, Mary, Queen of Scots, to her unfortunate destiny. Elisabeth, her eldest daughter, would be married to old Philip of Spain and die in childbirth. Another son would become the notorious Charles IX — somewhat unsure of his sexuality and something of a clone of Roman Emperor, Caligula — la belle Marguerite married the Huguenot King of Navarre who exiled her to a convent for her infidelity then proceeded to take over France as King Henry IV. And so it goes…. Quite how Nostradadamus got around explaining to Catherine that her thirteen-year-old son, Francois, had but four more years to live is a matter for our imagination but, as it turned out, he had already prophesied the event:.
This quatrain is spot on. On 5th December Francois died from a chill and before the end of the month his young cousin, the son of the Duc de Roche-sur-Yon, also died from an infection. But fame is a capricious thing. And while there is no doubt that Nostradamus continued to be held in high esteem by Catherine de Medici and countless others he was loathed by many. Indeed, by effigies of him were being burned in Paris and fearing a real roasting by the Inquisition he retired to his home in the South of France. Nostradamus was living and working at the same time as another famous astrologer, Dr John Dee.
Dee, born in , was some twenty-four years younger than Nostradamus and he would have been twenty-eight when the Centuries was first published. Dee, like Nostradamus, experienced seasons of fame and success interlaced with periods of infamy and vilification. During the Sixteenth Century no self-respecting monarch or ruler would have been without an astrologer but however sought after such a position might be it carried certain dangers.
Dee, revered as an astronomer, navigator and man of letters was forever dodging bullets at the courts of Mary Tudor and her successor, Elizabeth I. These courts, like any royal court, were infested by spies and constantly a-buzz with plots. And Dee, like any courtier, had to be careful with whom he hobnobbed — allegiances changed all the time. He narrowly escaped incarceration in the Tower of London, not because of a failed or an accurate prediction, but because he was thought to be plotting against Mary.
Also, it seems that regardless of the amount of trust and belief placed in astrology a huge amount of hostility and fear was levelled at its practitioners. And while Dee was clearly a man admired for his intellectual accomplishments there was extreme concern over his dabblings in alchemy. Nevertheless Elizabeth I took him under her wing: she asked him to choose the date and time for her coronation, which he did. Crowned on the morning of January 15 , with Jupiter in Aquarius and Mars in Scorpio the reign of Elizabeth was indeed long, innovative and glorious.
John Dee July 13 , London, England 4. Telescopes were rare and expensive items in the sixteenth Century and used principally for navigation. He was indeed a man light years ahead of his time. He also opined that since light could be manipulated with the use of lenses and mirrors, celestial rays could also be deflected. In this way you could ameliorate the planets in your horoscope. Have a difficult Saturn? No problem, just adjust this mirror! Dee was fortunate to be living in a momentous era. When he was forty-five years old a brilliant new star appeared.
It was Cassiopeia. And while this discovery shook the foundations of science — how could a star suddenly appear, then disappear, which it did roughly a year later — it certainly fuelled the belief that the heavens were in a state of turmoil, which would inevitably wreak havoc on the lives of men and nations. To John Dee the appearance of Cassiopeia was another sign of even greater things to come. In Jupiter and Saturn were to again conjoin in the sign of Pisces, which meant another nine hundred and sixty-year cycle was coming to an end.
There were fears of the end of the world and at the very least the end of the Catholic Church. And in retrospect those fears and expectations were justified: Europe was on the threshold of the Thirty-Years War, one of the most bloody and terrible conflicts to grip the continent. Elizabeth I Sept 7 , London, England 3. Now, if all this makes John Dee seem like a paragon of intellectual respectability, read on. Dr Dee was fascinated by the occult, the mysterious and the divine. To this end he spent much of his time trying to fathom the secrets of life and the universe.
In his quest for truth and enlightenment he was aided by a very strange, mercurial individual called, Edward Kelly. Reading all the documentary evidence of the life and times of John Dee it seems he fell completely under the spell of this near-lunatic skryer, Edward Kelly. While Dee, consulted planetary Ephemerides, observed the heavens and cast his horoscopes Kelly peered into a crystal ball and summoned various angels and spirits. This motley crew caused more trouble for the two of them than all the political spin-doctors at court put together and much of the information supplied by the Archangels Michael and Uriel and the spirit, Madimi, seems to owe more to the rambling mind of Edward Kelly than anything remotely sent from heaven.
Dee and his aide-de-camp, Kelly, spent four long, arduous years putting together an angelic language and cosmology supplied by their visiting angels. Sadly, little of this remains because Dee was ordered by another spirit to burn all twenty-eight volumes, which he duly did. In many ways, Dee was a more eccentric and controversial figure than Nostradamus.
Yet the legacy he left us in terms of his mystical journey and pioneering scientific theories was huge. However, he died a broken man, long forgotten by Court and his reputation in shreds. Nostradamus, on the other hand died, his renown in tact, mourned by the many and leaving an extensive fortune. Of all the many interesting features of the life and work of these two contemporary astrologers, how they made their predictions has to be near the top of the list. And I would say that the same is true today. You need more than an ephemeris and an astrological cook book to make a prediction. When Nostradamus committed his prophecies to print he made it clear that they covered the span of many centuries — right up until to be precise — yet only a handful of quatrains deliver a clear date and, as mentioned earlier, the predictions were not assembled in chronological or thematic order.
Thus, he made it deliberately difficult for interpreters to fathom his visions. The dates he does give and the astrological markers he provides — for astrological configurations are a clear way of establishing specific periods of time — confuse rather than clarify:. Now, this is quite specific: July, However, by the end of July , no great sign had been seen in the sky and no great king or leader had been brought back to the land of the living.
However, Saturn was in Scorpio then so this remains a quatrain to be fulfilled in the future. Mars has an eighteen-month cycle, while Saturn has a twenty-eight-year cycle so technically these two planets will come together in Leo every twenty-seven to thirty years. The next time they are set to conjoin in Leo is in , although at this point in time it does seem unlikely that sunny Spain will be occupied by anyone other than its own people and its usually welcome visitors. Liguria, by the way, means Italy — the Ligurians came from the area around Genoa. Here we almost certainly have the same powerful Arab leader referred to in the previous quatrain leaving his home-land, his base, and coming into Europe.
And since Nostradamus uses the phrase crosses the skies indicating flight, which, of course, was not possible in those days it is clearly a quatrain that refers to the Twentieth Century and beyond.. Striking everyone with his rod could imply that this powerful leader is bent on killing everyone with some kind of nuclear device but there is another interpretation — that he could communicate with everyone over the air-waves, thereby spreading his message far and wide. Certainly, from the vast amount of references to the East in the quatrains, Nostradamus is in no doubt that Christendom the West will be threatened, if not beaten into submission, by an individual from the Arab world and by Islam.
Not only does he give us many quatrains about the rise and rise of Muslim power but there are countless predictions about the collapse of the Catholic Church. Some of the many quatrains about the fall of the Holy See could be seen as the triumph of Protestantism over Catholicism in England — which happened a matter of years after his death when Elizabeth I succeeded Mary, but some of the predictions about the end of the Papacy have simply not yet been fulfilled.
Both these quatrains suggest that the Holy See will either be removed or eradicated by forces from the East. This may not be immediately apparent in the first quatrain. However, that phrase — Roys temporelz begs closer examination. We know Nostradamus delighted in anagrams and we have an interesting one here — switched around these letters create Roys en petrols — kings of petrol ergo oil kings. Thus, taking these two quatrains together Nostradamus could be suggesting that the rulers of the various oil states in the Middle East unite — and since he mentions three, we may be talking about Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran — and with their combined military power take over the near East and Europe.
Clearly, once Islam is established in Italy, there can be no place for the Pope as well! Once again we have an astrological reference to work with — the sun, Mars and Venus in Leo. A rather more interesting interpretation of this astrological mix is made by the Italian translator, Luciano Sampietro. He has a bee in his bonnet about the identity of the third Antichrist and his primary candidate is the Syrian President, Bashar Al Assad.
Sampietro suggests that we do not translate the first line as in the year , the seventh month but in the year and seven months. In other words, July A great King of Terror then carries a double meaning, not only the Anti-Christ himself but a sign in the sky, a total eclipse, no less. Sampietro takes as his guide here a statement by Nostradamus in a letter to King Henry II that preceded the last volume of the Centuries.
In this letter Nostradamus states that before the Antichrist comes to power there will — precede a solar eclipse, the darkest and most tenebrous that has ever been since the creation of the world up to the death and the passion of Jesus Christ. A whole swathe of the globe was plunged into eerie and unnatural darkness as the moon passed in front of the sun. And as all good astrologers know an eclipse is active way before its moment of exactitude and some time after.
And while other interpreters have endeavoured to make Saddam Hussein and Bin Laden out of these names, I do not think they can be said to have been successful. Sampietro claims to have decoded Nostradamus and worked out the secret behind the dates mentioned in the quatrains. However, Sampietro was stunningly right about one quatrain and Nostradamus astonishingly correct:. In Nostradamus-speak the new city is universally held to be New York and this quatrain is quite graphic in its depiction of the Towers of the World Trade Centre being shaken and, of course, this event marked the beginning of what has become known as the War on Terror, although as far as Nostradamus is concerned this event precipitates the Third World War.
Arethusa, by the way, was a nymph who while diving in the waters of a river was attacked by an evil entity living there. She appealed to Diana, who transformed her into a pure spring. It may be that Nostradamus is adding some imagery here to denote that this act of terror will precipitate more blood. This is another fairly graphic description of water being poisoned but Nostradamus is not clear about what exactly is taken and thrown into the tank — which may be a word to describe a reservoir.
The roads between mountains could refer to the streets of Jersey City or Manhattan, which are lined by sky-scrapers. Not insignificantly New Jersey is also called the Corridor State, since it is the route through which people can get in and out of the Island of Manhattan. However, I want to conclude by bringing astrology, astrologers and prophecy into the present day. A little earlier I made the point that astrology is not enough on its own to divine the future. To illustrate my point I want to go back to September 11th, Surely an event of such magnitude should have been spotted by astrologers.
During the early months of I was writing a weekly article on current events and astrology for my website. Here is some of what I said:. Saturn, of course, being the Great Teacher of the planets. Perhaps we shall have a more than usual amount of air-borne viruses to cope with; maybe lung-related diseases will be on the increase. Perhaps too, some kind of chemical disaster will cause untold problems for a large mass of people. And, if I were a president or a prime-minister I would want to be very sure that chemical weapons were in safe hands.
Lessons are learned the hard way with Saturn and in light of what happened with the tech stocks last year investors will be far more circumspect in their financial dealings. And while putting your money into government bonds might be the safest thing of all in this climate, a Saturn-Pluto opposition could augur a world shortage in oil so maybe the one commodity to go up in this time of decline is indeed oil. Writing on July 16th I suggested:.
In other words, America is currently reinventing itself, experiencing the death of the old and the birth of a new. Part of this process is taking place through the new administration of George W. And if ever there was an astrological setting for war, it is this one. However, I was not expecting to see any big global development in late July and early August.
My eyes were set on the period between August 26th and September 7th, for this was when the Saturn-Pluto opposition would be brought to life by the faster moving planets.
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I prepared the ground in my weekly column on 9th September and looking back on the week, I was able to cite the humungous tumble of the stock markets as a response to this dark and difficult aspect. Indeed, so concerned was I about this period of September that I had asked my husband to put off his flight to England on the 4th and come at the earliest on the 11th.
So, he duly booked his flight to London for the morning of September it was American Airlines flight , leaving Kennedy Airport in New York at 8. My margin of safety was not quite wide enough. We all know the dreadful events that unfolded at 9 45 am on that beautiful blue September morning. My husband was one of the lucky ones, his plane never took off and the only suffering he experienced was spending the next five days marooned on Long Island.
While could be said to be an event that I had prepared for but not predicted the death of the Princess of Wales was an event that I had predicted but was not prepared for. I mentioned in an article earlier in the year that I feared she would come under attack, meaning intense criticism in the media rather more than anything else. However, on 31st August as I winged my way across the Atlantic back to the UK I was totally unaware that in Paris events were unfolding that made a night-mare come true.
I have mentioned once or twice during the course of this talk that astrology alone is not enough to make life-sized predictions: at the very least you need a robust sixth sense but at best you need some pukka psychic ability. Mine happens to be dreaming. And, the more I look at the Nostradamus quatrains with their anagrams, acronyms, bizarre images and apparent non sequiters the more convinced I am that dreaming comes close to the visions he saw in his bowl of water.
And while Nostradamus was a product of the practices of his time, drawing pentagrams on the floor, mouthing incantations and opening himself up to visions of God, I am a child of my time, opening up my psyche to archetypal symbols and the language of the unconscious. The images Nostradamus glimpsed were fleeting and sometimes incomprehensible to him. He heard voices that told him of things he could not understand.
Yet he wrote down all that he saw and heard and left events to unfold in the fullness of time. Likewise, when I dutifully record my dreams, with their paradoxical images, voice-overs, famous figures, friends and family — my-Alice-through-the looking-glass kind of world — I may not be able to unravel their meaning at the time but often they are eerily correct about future events.
And some seven years before-hand. In the first, I was in the front row of an audience watching a play. The curtain went up and on the stage, sitting at a large desk, was her majesty, the Queen. She was delivering a sombre speech, but no matter how hard I tried I could not hear what she was saying. I knew only that it concerned the future of the monarchy. My eyes were then drawn to Charles and Diana who were just behind her.
Diana was laughing and Charles was urging her to be more responsible and to look serious for the cameras. There was a flash and a large explosion. All that was left on the stage was an empty car seat on a raised dais. In the second dream, which I will recount in the present tense since that is how I recorded it in my diary.
I am sitting in a sand dune having a pic-nic. Diana comes towards me, dressed in white with a black cloak around her.
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She sits down beside me. I feel awkward and unprared for her sudden and unannounced arrival. She is telling me about someone called Peter who has been fired because of her. Apparently he is going to France and will be undergoing plastic surgery to conceal his identity. She goes on to talk to me about William, and while she does this, she holds up a large figure three. She then begins to cry, and I comfort her, urging her not to give up on the marriage.
The scene changes to my then home. Diana comes into the sitting room with a large gift-wrapped present, which she hands to me. When I open it, I find a strange looking object about three feet in size — the only thing this object vaguely resembles is the ornate hand of a large clock. I am embarrassed at the enormity of the gift and refuse it saying that prince Charles might be cross if she gave it away. I escort her out to her car, and when I return, William is seated in the same chair. He is much older and sporting a beard. Two police motor cycles and a white car streaming ahead leaving a black car on its own.
Two vans approach from either side and prevent the black car from moving forwards. I sent these dreams to Diana, believing them to have some bearing on her future and the future of the monarchy. She told me that when she read them they struck a deep chord within her.